About UsThe Communist Party of Nepal (CPN) was founded on 22nd April 1949 during the peoples struggle against the autocratic feudal Rana regime. The Rana oligarchy was backed by feudalism and imperialism. The Nepalese people were suppressed and kept in isolation from the outside world. The CPN was founded by the revolutionaries to wage the peoples struggle and to establish new democratic system in the country. Comrade Pushpa Lal Shrestha was the founder leader of the party, who continually fought for democracy till his last breath in 1978 while in exile in India. In its early years, the party gave clarion call for the establishment of the new democracy to liberate the country from feudal and imperialist exploitation and to preserve the independence of the country. For that purpose, people from all walks of life were mobilized massively. Mass organizations among peasantry, workers, women, students and youth were organized.
The Communist Party gradually evolved as a champion of nationalism, democracy and peoples livelihood because of its staunch policies and actions in defense of peoples rights and national independence. The Party was banned in 1952 for three years. However, the party firmly continued its struggle for the establishment of new democratic system. The First National Congress of the Party was successfully convened on January 30, 1954. Comrade Man Mohan Adhikari was elected the General Secretary of the Party and the program of New Democratic Revolution was adopted as the strategic Party program for the Nepali revolution. The Second National Congress of the Party was held on May 8, 1957 and Dr. Keshar Jung Rayamajhi was elected as the General Secretary of the Party. But immediate after the second Party Congress Dr. Rayamajhi misled the Party towards the rightist capitalistic deviation and disunity.
The CPN participated in the parliamentary elections of 1959 but could not accomplish significant success. Only four people won the election from the Communist Party out of 109 members of the Parliament. Despite the small number and size in the parliament, CPN had played important role during the eighteen months of the elected parliament. The Party firmly stood against the Royal Coup in December 1960 condemning the dissolution of the popularly elected parliament and ban on all the political parties and mass organizations. CPN called for a united struggle against the imposition of the Partyless Panchayat system by the King. After the imposition of the dictatorial rule by the King, the vexing situation not only created confusion among the people but also raised consequential questions and issues among the parties. Different opinions surfaced within the Party, which were expressed polemically in the CPNs Darbhanga Plenum in 1961.
An Inter-Zone Coordination Committee was formed immediately after the Darbhanga Plenum to streamline the Party activities. In such a situation, the Third National Congress was held in April 1962, which elected Comrade Tulsi Lal Amatya as the General Secretary and approved National Democracy as the general program of the party. But the Congress failed to accommodate differing views inside the Party and gave rise to the emergence of many splinter groups within the Party. The increasing disputes in the international communist movement further fostered the party division. Various groups appeared in different parts of the country.